State org/people involved in the Jammu Genocide.

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Background & Intent of the genocide

Hari Singh and the Congress leadership knew that the majority of the State's populace was inclined to link its future with Pakistan; the Hari Singh's own preference, however, was that the State should remain independent or accede to India.

Sensing Hari Singh's intentions, the State's Muslim majority started organizing resistance forces in the border districts, particularly in Poonch. In order to maintain his stranglehold, Hari Singh initiated systematic tyranny and torture against the resistance movement. His aim was to spread fear and panic, not only to deter people from resisting his forces, but also to compel them into an exodus to Pakistan so that the demographic hurdle of the State's Muslim majority could be removed altogether.

Hari Singh invited the Rashtriya Sevak Singh (RSS), and the organized Sikh groups of extremists from East Punjab. These circumstances compelled a large number of the local Muslims to migrate to Pakistan. According to the official figures, they currently make up around 1.5 million in Pakistan's population alone.

The Main people involved in the genocide

Kali DW, Rikhi sh, shubh Dutt, Dina Nath, retired Ranger, Shambu Nath son of Gana Ram, Minister, were its main pillars at Katra. Govardhan Singh, Wazir-1- Wazarat, Jia Lal Darbari A.S.P. and Manohar Lal S.I. Police played an active role in organising a militia company headed by Capt. Kishan Singh, Capt. Omkar Singh of Bijepur and retired Zaildar of Biddha. The Sangh at Katra was assisted by the party of lnder Singh Namdar of the Militia company. Reasi sustained the highest percentage of ~OSS of life. The illaqa towards the right bank of the Chenab was somehow saved because Muslims received timely information and the Arnas people ran up towards the Gool side, some of whom made their way towards Rajauri and then to Pakistan and some slipped away towards the adjoining Kashmir territory. All the Government employees were killed. Permanand Naib tehsildar Arnas (Gool) was instrumental in blocking the roads leading to Gool. Pauni town was also raided and the Sanghis went up to Paurakotla.

Statements On Jammu Genocide

Statements on record relating to the Jammu Genocide.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi commented on the situation in Jammu on 25 December 1947 in his speech in New Delhi:

"The Hindus and Sikhs of Jammu and those who had gone there from outside killed Muslims. 
The Maharaja of Kashmir is responsible for what is happening there… A large number of 
Muslims have been killed there and Muslim women have been dishonored."

Reference: The second assassination of Gandhi, Ram Puniyani

Ved Bhasin

“Some of those who led the riots in Udhampur and Bhaderwah later joined the National Conference and some 
even served as ministers,” says Bhasin, as quoted by Naqvi in his book. 

Bhasin said, the Maharaja’s administration helped and “even armed the communal marauders”.

Bhasin reported how several Muslims living outside Muslim-dominated areas were brutally killed by the 
rioters who moved freely in vehicles with arms and ammunition even when the city was officially under curfew.

“The curfew it appeared was meant only to check the movement of Muslims,” he said.

`In Naqvi’s book, Bhasin recalls what then Prime Minister of J&K Mehr Chand Mahajan told a delegation of 
Hindus who met him in the palace when he arrived in Jammu: ` 

‘Now when the power is being transferred to the people, you should demand parity.’

One of them associated with National Conference asked Mahajan how could they demand parity when there
was so much difference in population ratio.

“Pointing to the Ramnagarrakh below,” Bhasin said, “where some bodies of Muslims were still lying, 
Mahajan replied, ‘the population ratio too can change.’ ”

Reference: Jammu Massacre: How a Hindu journalist recorded the Muslim Massacre, free press Kashmir, Sabreena Bhat

Sheikh Abdullah

In a speech at Panthal on the occasion of the inauguration of a canal in April, 1951, Abdullah observed :

"I want to tell those people who are anxious to bring back the Maharaja that Hari Singh will never return 
to the State. He has massacred the Muslims of this place. His wife also was his accomplice in these 
nefarious actions. There is no room for any murderer in this State".

These speeches which he delivered on 16th, 17th and 18th of November 1947 were considered so important by the National
Conference that they were published in a booklet form entitled Khutbat-i-Sher-i-Kashmir
by the Party. In his speech at the Museum Ground (Jammu) delivered to ‘fifty thousand’ people Abdullah declared :

“I want to tell the Hindus of Jammu who are raising the slogan of
‘Maharaja Bahadur ki Jai' (Long live Maharaja Bahadur) that I have no
difference with the slogan ; but I want to ask this much. Do you want to
see the Maharaja Bahadur as the king of only the Jammu city or the
whole State? You have to decide this, if you want to keep him as the king
of only one or two districts you can surely do so and I know that you have
arranged thus. You have emptied this area of the Muslims. But my
desire is that the Maharaja Bahadur should remain the king of the whole
of Jammu and Kashmir and not only of two or three districts.”

In his autobiography, ‘The Flames of the Chinar‘, Abdullah writes: “Upon reaching Jammu,
Maharani Tara Devi and he (Singh) distributed arms among communal Hindus and RSS volunteers.
The Muslims of #Jammu were assured of a safe-conduct to Pakistan but were massacred at a place
called Saubha. No doubt these killings were organized by the Maharaja, his bigoted wife and
(then prime minister of Jammu and Kashmir) Mehr Chand Mahajan.”

On the ground, the killing operations were organized, directed and supervised by Maharani Tara Devi
in league with her debauch Guru Sat Dev and the governor of Jammu, Chet Ram Chopra. At the
politico-administrative level, Sheikh puts the blame solely on the Dogra ruler Hari Singh and Prime Minster
Mahajan. At one point of time, Sheikh had even thought of initiating action against the duo for crimes against
humanity (Atish-e-Chinar, page 331)

Reference: The History Of Struggle For Freedom In Kashmir, Prem Nath Bazaz

The Ranbir, Jammu, Dated 1st. December 1949.

Arundhati Roy

In Jammu, to the south, the Maharaja’s forces assisted by troops borrowed from other princely states, 
massacred Muslims. Historians and news reports of the time estimated that somewhere between 70,000 and 
200,000 were murdered in the streets of the city, and in its neighboring districts.

Reference: The Silence Is the Loudest Sound

Dr Karan Singh

“I recall the grim atmosphere,” writes Dr Karan Singh, in his autobiography, Heir Apparent, 
“…we were losing control of the outer areas.” When the last prince was watching his empire’s 
steady fall, his father Hari Singh’s exit had created an anarchic setup in Kashmir — perhaps
paving way for the larger crisis.

William W Baker

According to William W Baker, Maharaja not
only ordered the local people of Poonch to lay down their arms, but his
order was for all Muslims of the state to voluntarily turn over all their
weapons to his police. When his order was resisted, the Muslims, who were
five lakh in number. Among them, two lakh were murdered and the rest
fled for their safety to West Pakistan.

Reference: Partition and Legacies of Violence: A Study of Kashmir Conflict, Inamul Haq